What are “humanized mice?”
Human Fetal Immune Cells are transplanted into mouse liver and thymus.
Humanized Mice HIV Research. Springer pdf . 19 pages.
From the book:
Over the last few decades, enormous strides have been made to improve the “humanization” of mouse models, particularly in the area of HIV research. Humanized mice have evolved into an invaluable alternative to SIV-based nonhuman primate models, as they are simpler, less costly, and also highly susceptible to HIV infection. Mouse models have been employed in basic pathogenesis research, preclinical and clinical testing of compounds with potential antiretroviral activity, and more recently, HIV biomedical prevention.
Keyword: HSC = human stem cell
These mice were generated by genetically introducing human cytokine genes into NOD/SCID/γc(null) and Rag2(null)γc(null) mice. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of human hematopoietic cells developed in these mice. Various human disease mouse models using these humanized mice are summarized.
With respect to the source of HSCs, CD34+ cells from cord blood or fetal liver were typically used. However, CD34+ cells from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood (PB) or bone marrow (BM) served as additional sources. Lepus et al.22 reported that CD34+ cells from fetal liver were more efficient than those from cord blood or G-CSF-mobilized PB.
Human lymphocytes, including T and B cells, predominantly develop in humanized mice transferred with HSCs. Therefore, appropriate models are provided for viruses that specifically infect lymphocytes and express their pathology, such as HIV-1, HTLV-1 and EBV. HIV-1 infection models have been widely used for the analysis of disease mechanisms and the development of anti-HIV-1 drugs,61 as HIV-1 infects human T cells in SCID-hu mice.26, 62, 63 This research is further accelerated through the use of HSC-transplanted immunodeficient mice, in which multilineage hematopoietic cells can be differentiated.64, 65, 66, 67 In this field, a unique model for HIV-168, 69, 70 reported by Garcia’s group at the University of North Carolina and termed bone marrow–liver–thymus (BLT) mice, has attracted attention. As the name suggests, this model is generated by transplantation of fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus into a subcutaneous region of the [mouse] kidney.
Babies Killed by The State
National Institutes of Health, Infectious Disease Research Program
We use mice infected with Friend murine leukemia virus as a model to study basic immunology. A special interest is in chronic infections, including how chronic infections are established and maintained and developing strategies to prevent and treat them. Using this model, we discovered that viruses can subvert the suppressive nature of regulatory T cells to evade immunological destruction by CD8+ T cells. We also use “humanized” mice, mice that contain human immune systems, as a model to study immune responses to HIV infection and to help us determine basic mechanisms of vaccine protection against acute and chronic retroviral infections. The goal of these studies is to develop new ideas for HIV vaccines and therapies.
Where Do They Obtain the Dead Babies?
Cybernet News. August 5, 2015.
U.S. Govt. Made Humanized Mice with Tissue From Babies 17-22 Weeks Gestational Age. Terence P. Jeffrey.
They indicated that the human tissue donors were at 17 to 22 weeks gestational age and that their tissue was provided to the researchers by Advanced Bioscience Resources, which is a non-profit organization located in Alameda, Calif.
Each mouse would get a piece of thymus and a piece of liver taken from the same 17-to-22-week gestational age human baby. The part of the liver not cut into small pieces and transplanted under the kidney capsules of mice was cut into small pieces and processed to make stem cells that were injected into the mice after they underwent their transplantation surgeries.
“The tissues were divided to give the surgeons approximately the same amount of liver tissue as thymus,” the scientists wrote. “The remainder of the liver was used to isolate hematopoietic stem cells for injection following recovery from surgery.”
“A section of liver sufficient for transplantation was set aside and the remaining liver was cut into very small pieces, dissecting out any obvious connective tissue, the gall bladder and the bile duct,” the scientists said in the part of the paper where they described how they derived the stem cells from the human fetal liver.
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