HIV/AIDS: Fetal Tissue Research Papers

Do researchers use both Embryonic and Fetal tissue and body parts?

YesAnd it’s legal.  But researchers hide their research with fetuses by using the term “embryonic stem cells.”    Their research also uses “fetal stem cells,” making this research less than honest and transparent to the public.  Although it is technically lawful to do so, to label it “Embryonic” Stem Cell Research is misleading the public.

Humanized Mice/Mouse Models for HIV Research:   Visit our Humanized Mice page.


 

A Partial List of Research Papers

More research papers here.

We want to be clear about one thing:  if scientists can hide the definition of “fetus” and call it an “embryo,” for research purposes, then they can hide the procedures in all the research papers and projects, too. 

What do they mean by “adult” stem cells?  Do they hide the origins of reprogrammed cells? 


logo-cirm-2_0CIRM Research Projects

“The need for novel approaches to the treatment of HIV infection has never been greater, because new infections continue to occur at undiminished rates, in California and across the nation, despite decades of prevention efforts.”  Read more here.


 CLOSED PROJECT.

Project:  Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapeutic Strategies to Target HIV Disease

We have recently been able to induce the development of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into the types of cells that HIV can infect. In addition, we were able to show that a marker gene could be introduced into the hESC, and this gene continued to produce its protein throughout development of the cell into the more mature blood cell types. This sets the stage for testing the possibility of using gene-modified hESC to treat HIV or other immune system diseases. We have 3 different types of anti-HIV genetic approaches that we will test in laboratory models. These will be placed into hESC, and the cells allowed to develop into blood cells. We will then test whether our “therapeutic” genes can inhibit HIV infection in culture. We will also develop novel mouse models that allow development of hESC into blood cells in the body (in vivo). We will test the efficacy of certain of these genetic approaches in these systems, as they should more closely represent the situation in people. These studies will provide proof-of-principle that cells in the immune system can be modified by manipulation of hESC, and may help to develop future therapeutic approaches to combat HIV disease. In addition, these studies will be relevant to other immune system disorders such as autoimmune diseases.

Publications


Project:  Genetic modification of the human genome to resist HIV-1 infection and/or disease progression

The proposed studies describe the genetic approaches utilizing human embryonic stem cells to suppress and/or eliminate the expression of the human protein CCR5. CCR5 is found on the surface of white blood cells. HIV-1 attaches to CCR5 and uses CCR5 to enter into its target cells.  The overall goal of this project is to investigate the use of embryonic stem cells and blood stem cells as a potential therapeutic approach for HIV-1 disease. We investigated a process known as RNA interference to block HIV-1 infection.


Human embryonic stem cells are necessary to produce “humanized mice.”  Unknown:  does this research use human cells in any other way?

HIV-1 therapy requires combinations of reagents in order to effectively suppress HIV-1 replication. We have created several combinations of anti-HIV reagents through genetic engineering, which will eventually be delivered to humans through adult blood stem cells. We have compared the effectiveness and safety of these genetic “vectors” in cell culture and in an advanced mouse model, which allows human blood cells to grow in tissues. In addition, this mouse model allows one to investigate HIV-1 infection within the animals. Through these tests, we narrowed combinations down to those that seem to be the most effective based upon showing no toxicity and possessing the ability to be maintained within human blood cells in the mouse, and resist multiple strains of HIV-1 infection both in cell culture and in the humanized mice.

This project uses “Adult Stem Cells.”

Project: ZIinc Finger Nuclease-Based Stem Cell Therapy for AIDS

The Phase I clinical trial, which is sponsored by City of Hope and funded by Sangamo BioSciences and CIRM under its Strategic Partnership funding mechanism, is planned to start accrual in the fourth quarter of 2014.

Uses “Adult Stem Cells.”  Active.

Project: Stem Cell Programming With Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Eradicate HIV Infection

Our overall goal is to use a gene therapy approach to improve a patient’s own immune response against HIV, thus rendering them able to fight their own viral infection. We will test an approach designed to engineer a patient’s immune system so that it can directly kill cells infected by HIV, thereby preventing spread of the virus throughout the body. This would decrease virus replication, and perhaps eliminate HIV from the body.

Other

Journal of Infectious Disease 2013 Nov 15; 208(Suppl 2): S160–S164.
PMCID: PMC3807977
Pre-clinical Modeling of CCR5 Knockout in Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Zinc Finger Nucleases Using Humanized Mice

Genetic strategies to block expression of CCR5, the major co-receptor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), are being developed as anti-HIV therapies. For example, human hematopoietic stem/precursor cells (HSPC) can be modified by the transient expression of CCR5-targeted zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to generate CCR5-negative cells, which could then give rise to HIV-resistant mature CD4+ T cells following transplantation into patients. The safety and anti-HIV effects of such treatments can be evaluated by transplanting ZFN-treated HSPC into immunodeficient mice, where the extent of human cell engraftment, lineage differentiation and anti-HIV activity arising from the engineered HSPC can be examined. In this way, humanized mice are providing a powerful small animal model for pre-clinical studies of novel anti-HIV therapies.

Keywords: HIV, CCR5, hematopoietic stem cells, zinc finger nucleases, humanized mice

Genomic Editing of the HIV-1 Coreceptor CCR5 in Adult Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Using Zinc Finger Nucleases.  

Molecular Therapy.  April 16 2013.  American Society of Gene and Molecular Therapy http://www.nature.com/mt/journal/v21/n6/full/mt201365a.html

“The HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 is a validated target for HIV/AIDS therapy.”

This work was performed in Duarte, CA; Richmond, CA; and Los Angeles, CA. The research was supported by a grant to D.L.D., P.M.C., and J.A.Z. from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) (grant no. DR1-01490). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of CIRM or any other agency of the State of California. U.H. was supported by a fellowship from the Swiss National Science Foundation, PBZHP3-133452. We thank David Ann (City of Hope) for critical reading of the manuscript. J.W., K.K., P.-Q.L., M.C.H., and P.D.G. are full time employees of Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. The others authors declared no conflict of interest.

The authors work locations:

  1. 1Laboratory for Cellular Medicine, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California, USA
  2. 2Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., Richmond, California, USA
  3. 3Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
  4. 4Department of Virology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California, USA

Correspondence: David L DiGiusto, Laboratory for Cellular Medicine, Department of Virology, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd., Duarte, California 91010, USA. E-mail: DDiGiusto@coh.org



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